Gynaecological Cancer Detection

Three Types Of Cancer Detection Facilities

  • Sonomammography For Breast Cancer Detection

Breast ultrasound or sonomammography is good option working since the early 50s.

Ultrasound imaging is based on acoustic impedance (a product of the density of the observed tissue and the ultrasound velocity along that tissue). ultrasound looks for shape and texture, besides microcalcifications.

    • Breast Ultrasound can detect whether a lump is a malignant mass or a benign cyst.
    • Ultrasound It is relatively inexpensive
    • Sonomammography is painless.
    • Sonomammography scans the whole breast.
    • Ultrasound is safer: mechanical waves with very low power and very short exposition time.
    • Ultrasound works for dense breast.
    • Modern Ultrasound devices are digital and can use computer-aided detection systems very easily. The included images of breast cancer show a working example of ultrasound CAD. This technique enhances the information by increasing the contrast with color. A newer technique, under development – Ultrasound color pre processing, will disclose new information.


  • Pelvic Sonography For Ovarian Cancer Detection

Ovarian cancer: This cancer usually occurs in women over age 50 but can affect younger women. It causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system and is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the developed world. Its cause is unknown.

Pelvic ultrasound uses sound waves to create an image of the organs in the pelvis, including the ovaries. The test usually involves using an ultrasound wand on the abdomen and inside the vagina. When used as a screening test for ovarian cancer, vaginal ultrasound can find between 80 and 100 percent of ovarian cancers. However, ultrasound cannot always tell the difference between ovarian cancer and other more common conditions (ovarian cyst, endometriosis).

Ovarian cancer screening may be recommended if you have a high risk family history of ovarian cancer and:

  • You have a BRCA mutation and you have your ovaries
  • You have Lynch syndrome (also called hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC]) and you have your ovaries

Ovarian cancer screening may also be considered for women who are eligible to have genetic testing (because of their high-risk family history) but who have chosen not to have genetic testing. In this group, ovarian cancer screening may be recommended, starting at age 30 to 35, or 5 to 10 years earlier than the age when the youngest family member was diagnosed. Screening may include a blood test for CA-125 and a pelvic ultrasound

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

During the early stages of ovarian cancer, symptoms are often vague and ill-defined. Symptoms may include pelvic or abdominal discomfort, bloating, difficulty eating or feeling full, increased abdominal size, or rushing to urinate frequently. However, these symptoms can also be caused by many other conditions.

  • Pap Smear For Cervical Cancer Detection


Cervical cancer: The cancer is caused by several types of a virus called human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV spreads through sexual contact. Most women’s bodies are able to fight this infection. But sometimes the virus leads to cancer. You’re at higher risk of cervical cancer if you smoke, have many children, have many sex partners, use birth control pills for a long time, or have HIV infection.

The cancer may not cause any symptoms at first, but later, you may have pelvic pain or bleeding from the vagina. It usually takes several years for normal cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells. A test called a Pap smear is very effective in screening for cervical cancer. The Pap test is helpful in detecting cervical cancer.

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Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for around 70% of cervical cancers

Signs and Symptoms

  • Bleeding that occurs between regular menstrual periods
  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching or a pelvic exam
  • Menstrual periods that last longer and are heavier than before
  • Bleeding after going through menopause
  • Increased vaginal discharge
  • Pelvic pain

Risk Factors

  • Weakened immue system
  • Several pregnancies
  • Giving birh at a very young age
  • Long term use of contraceptive pill
  • Family history
  • Smoking

What is the Pap test?


A Pap test is an examination of cells that are scraped or brushed off the cervix, and placed on a slide that can be looked at under a microscope. The purpose of the Pap test is to find changes that may lead to cervical cancer.

How should I prepare for a Pap test?

  • Do not douche for at least three days before your Pap test. If you do, there won’t be enough loose cells in your cervical fluid for an accurate test.
  • Do not use tampons, or use vaginal medications or contraceptives for 72 hours before your appointment.
  • Schedule your exam two weeks after the first day of your last period. Do not schedule it during your menstrual period.


Current treatments for all three cancers, especially in advanced stages, include surgery followed by chemotherapy or a combination of chemo and radiation therapies.



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